The kings of Judah up to the Babylonian captivity (Mt 1:8-1:11)

“Joram was

The father of Uzziah.

Uzziah was

The father of Jotham.

Jotham was

The father of Ahaz.

Ahaz was

The father of Hezekiah.

Hezekiah was

The father of Manasseh.

Manasseh was

The father of Amos.

Amos was

The father of Josiah.

Josiah was

The father of Jechoniah

And his brothers,

At the time of the deportation

To Babylon.”

 

Ἰωρὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ὀζείαν, Ὀζείας δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωαθάμ, Ἰωαθὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἄχαζ, Ἄχαζ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἐζεκίαν, Ἐζεκίας δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Μανασσῆ, Μανασσῆς δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀμώς, Ἀμὼς δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωσείαν, Ἰωσείας δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰεχονίαν καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς μετοικεσίας Βαβυλῶνος.

 

The chronology of the Judean kings, as found in 1 and 2 Kings, and 1 Chronicles, chapter 3, picks up with Amaziah’s son, Azariah (Ὀζείαν) or Uzziah who ruled from about 781-740 BCE.  However, here it says that Joram (Ἰωρὰμ) was his father when Joram was the father of Ahaziah.  Uzziah had a son named Jotham (Ἰωαθάμ) who ruled from about 740-736 BCE.  His son Ahaz (Ἄχαζ) ruled from about 736-716 BCE.  His son Hezekiah (Ἐζεκίαν) ruled from about 716-687 BCE.  His son Manasseh (Μανασσῆ) ruled from about 687-642 BCE.  His son Amon or Amos (Ἀμώς) ruled from about 642-640 BCE.  His son Josiah (Ἰωσείαν) ruled from about 640-609 BCE.  Many of Josiah’s sons would rule Judah.  His son Johanan, Jehoahaz or Shallum ruled for just one year about 609 BCE.  His brother (τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς), Josiah’s son Jehoiakim or Eliakim ruled from 609-598 BCE.  His son Jehoiachin, Coniah or Jeconiah (Ἰεχονίαν) ruled for less than a year about 598 BCE.  Zedekiah or Mattaniah, brother of Jehoiakim and son of Josiah, ruled from about 598-587 BCE until the beginning of the Babylonian captivity (ἐπὶ τῆς μετοικεσίας Βαβυλῶνος).  The Greek text used the term “begat” (ἐγέννησεν) to represent the relationships between these 8 men.  However, it seems perfectly acceptable to simply call them the father instead of saying “fathered them.”

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The death of King Jotham (2 Chr 27:7-27:9)

“Now the rest of the acts of King Jotham, all his wars, and his ways, are written in the Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah. He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign. He reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem. King Jotham slept with his ancestors. They buried him in the city of David. His son Ahaz succeeded him.”

This is once again, almost word for word from 2 Kings, chapter 15. For more details, see the lost “Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel and Judah.” This is the first time that this biblical chronicler explicitly used this name. It almost sounds like the Book of Kings 2, but that book used exactly the same expression. Once again there is a repetition of the age and reign of King Jotham that was just mentioned a couple of paragraphs earlier. He states that King Jotham died without mentioning how he died. He was buried in Jerusalem with his ancestors without any specific mention of where or how. His son King Ahaz took over after him.

 

 

The descendents of Jonathan (1 Chr 9:40-9:44)

“The son of Jonathan was Meribbaal. Meribbaal was the father of Micah. The sons of Micah were Pithon, Melech, Tahrea, and Ahaz. Ahaz became the father of Jarah. Jarah became the father of Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. Zimri became the father of Moza. Moza became the father of Binea. Rephaiah was his son, Eleasah his son, and Azel his son. Azel had six sons. These are their names, Azrikam, Bocheru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan. These were the sons of Azel.”

This is exactly the same as the previous chapter except for a few name discrepancies. Here the name is Tahrea instead of Tarea, and is only found here. An “h” has been added to this name. Jarah is here instead of Jehoaddah, but this is the only time that this name appears. Here we see 13 generations from (1) Saul, probably going down to the time of this biblical author. The son of (2) Jonathan was (3) Meribbaal, the name used here in this book, but Mephibosheth was the name used in 2 Samuel, chapter 4. There were 5 other people named (4) Micah, including the prophet with his book Micah, and the Micah in Judges, chapters 17-18. Although Micah had 4 sons, Pithon, Melech, Tahrea, and (5) Ahaz, this author only follows Ahaz. The other 3 sons are only mentioned in these lists. There was a more famous Ahaz, King Ahaz of Judah (736-716 BCE), who is not this Ahaz. This is the only mention of his son (6) Jehoaddah or Jarah. His 3 sons were Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. Alemeth was also the name of a holy city in the Benjamin territory. There were 3 other people with the name of Azmaveth. (7) Zimri was also the name of a King of Israel (885 BCE) who ruled a short time. He could be the same person. His son was (8) Moza, the same name as a son of Caleb. His son was (9) Binea, who is only mentioned in these 2 lists in this book. His son (10) Raphah was a name mentioned as one of the Philistines. His son (11) Eleasah was also mentioned as a son of Hezron. His son (12) Azel had 6 sons (13) Azrikam, Bocheru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan. Besides being mentioned here Azel was also a place near Jerusalem. There were 5 people with the name of Azrikam. This is the only mention of Bocheru and Sheariah. There were 6 biblical people with the name of Ishmael. The most famous was the son of Abraham by Hagar his concubine. There were 12 people with the name of Obadiah, with the most famous the prophet and book Obadiah. There were 9 people with the name of Hanan.

The descendents of Jonathan (1 Chr 8:34-8:38)

“The son of Jonathan was Meribbaal. Meribbaal was the father of Micah. The sons of Micah were Pithon, Melech, Tarea, and Ahaz. Ahaz became the father of Jehoaddah. Jehoaddah became the father of Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. Zimri became the father of Moza. Moza became the father of Binea. Raphah was his son, Eleasah his son, and Azel his son. Azel had six sons. These are their names, Azrikam, Bocheru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan. All these were the sons of Azel.”

Here we see 13 generations from (1) Saul, probably going down to the time of this biblical author. The son of (2) Jonathan was (3) Meribbaal, the name used here in this book, but Mephibosheth was the name used 2 Samuel, chapter 4. There were 5 other people named (4) Micah, including the prophet with his book Micah, and Micah in Judges, chapters 17-18. Although Micah had 4 sons, Pithon, Melech, Tarea, and (5) Ahaz, this author follows Ahaz only. The other 3 sons are only mentioned in these lists. There was a more famous Ahaz, King Ahaz of Judah (736-716 BCE), who is not this Ahaz. This is the only mention of his son (6) Jehoaddah. His 3 sons were Alemeth, Azmaveth, and Zimri. Alemeth was also the name of a holy city in the Benjamin territory. There were 3 other people with the name of Azmaveth. (7) Zimri was also the name of a King of Israel (885 BCE) who ruled a short time. He could be the same person. His son was (8) Moza, the same name as a son of Caleb. His son was (9) Binea, who is only mentioned in these 2 lists in this book. His son (10) Raphah was a name mentioned as one of the Philistines.   His son (11) Eleasah was also mentioned as a son of Hezron. His son (12) Azel had 6 (13) sons, Azrikam, Bocheru, Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan. Besides being mentioned here Azel was also a place near Jerusalem. There were 5 people with the name of Azrikam. This is the only mention of Bocheru and Sheariah. There were 6 biblical people with the name of Ishmael. The most famous was the son of Abraham by Hagar his concubine. There were 12 people with the name of Obadiah, with the most famous the prophet and book Obadiah. There were 9 people with the name of Hanan.

The kings of Judah (1 Chr 3:10-3:16)

“The descendants of Solomon were Rehoboam, Abijah his son, Asa his son, Jehoshaphat his son, Joram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son, Amaziah his son, Azariah his son, Jotham his son, Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son, Amon his son, Josiah his son. The sons of Josiah were Johanan the first-born, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum. The descendants of Jehoiakim were his sons Jeconiah and Zedekiah.”

Here we have the list of the kings of Judah starting with Solomon that can be found at the end of 1 Kings and 2 Kings. Based on those 2 books there was no disruption in the lineage of David via Solomon to all the kings of Judah before the Exile. Unlike the northern kingdom of Israel, there were no revolutions in the southern kingdom of Judah until the end with the Babylonian Captivity. However, there was also a consideration of the kings of Israel in the books of Kings, which is not here at all. The whole emphasis is on Judah and Jerusalem alone. The son of Solomon (1) Rehoboam ruled from about 931-913 BCE. His son (2) Abijah or Abijam ruled from about 913-911 BCE. His son (3) Asa ruled from about 911-870 BCE. His son (4) Jehoshaphat ruled from about 870-848 BCE. His son (5) Joram or Jehoram ruled from about 848-841 BCE. His son (6) Ahaziah, Azariah, or Jehoahaz ruled for less than a year about 841 BCE. There is no mention that Athaliah, Ahaziah’s mother ruled for about 4 years until her grandson (7) Joash or Jehoash ruled from about 835-796 BCE. His son, (8) Amaziah ruled from about 796-781 BCE. His son, (9) Azariah or Uzziah ruled from about 781-740 BCE. His son (10) Jotham ruled from about 740-736 BCE. His son (11) Ahaz ruled from about 736-716 BCE. His son (12) Hezekiah ruled from about 716-687 BCE. His son (13) Manasseh ruled from about 687-642 BCE. His son (14) Amon ruled from about 642-640 BCE. His son (15) Josiah ruled from about 640-609 BCE. Many of Josiah’s sons will rule Judah. His son (16) Johanan, Jehoahaz or Shallum ruled for just one year about 609 BCE. His brother, (17) Josiah’s son Jehoiakim or Eliakim ruled from 609-598 BCE. His son (18) Jehoiachin, Coniah or Jeconiah ruled for less than a year about 598 BCE. (19) Zedekiah or Mattaniah, brother of Jehoiakim and son of Josiah, ruled from about 598-587 BCE until the beginning of the Babylonian captivity.

 

Destruction of the foreign god’s worship places (2 Kings 23:10-23:14)

“King Josiah defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the sons of Ben-hinnom, so that no one would make a son or daughter pass through fire as an offering to Molech. He removed the horses that the kings of Judah had dedicated to the sun. They were at the entrance to the house of Yahweh, by the chamber of the eunuch Nathan-melech, which was in the precincts. Then he burned the chariots of the sun with fire. He pulled down the altars on the roof of the upper chamber of King Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made as well as the altars which King Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of Yahweh. He broke them into pieces. He threw the rubble into the Wadi Kidron. The king defiled the high places that were east of Jerusalem, to the south of the Mount of Destruction, which King Solomon of Israel had built for Astarte the abomination of the Sidonians, for Chemosh the abomination of Moab, and for Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. He broke the pillars in pieces, cut down the sacred poles, and covered the sites with human bones.”

King Josiah eliminated the ancient Ammonite and Canaanite practice of burning children as a sacrifice to the fertility god Molech at a place called Topheth, which was in the valley of Ben-hinnom. The sacrifices to Molech were also mentioned in Leviticus, chapters 18 and 21. He then eliminated the horses of the kings of Judah that had been dedicated to the sun god. These must have been at the entrance to the temple, somehow near where a eunuch official named Nathan-melech lived. The king also burned the chariots dedicated to the sun god. Worship of sun must have been prevalent. This king tore down and broke into pieces the altars that King Ahaz had made for his upper chamber and the altars that King Manasseh had put into the temple of Yahweh itself. Finally, he put the rubble into the Wadi Kidron, which turned out to be some sort of garbage dump for all this sacred stuff. Next, the king tore down the houses of worship that King Solomon had built for his wives to worship the foreign gods of Astarte, Chemosh, and Milcom. He broke all their pillars and sacred poles and covered them with human bones.

The prophet Isaiah heals King Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:7-20:11)

“Then Isaiah said. ‘Bring a lump of figs. Let them take it and apply it to the boil, so that he may recover. King Hezekiah said to Isaiah. ‘What shall be the sign that Yahweh will heal me, and that I shall go up to the house of Yahweh on the third day?’ Isaiah said. ‘This is the sign to you from Yahweh. Yahweh will do the thing that he has promised. The shadow has now advanced ten intervals. Shall it retreat ten intervals?’ King Hezekiah answered. ‘It is normal for the shadow to lengthen ten intervals. Rather let the shadow retreat ten intervals.’ The prophet Isaiah cried to Yahweh. He brought the shadow back ten intervals, by which the sun had declined on the dial of King Ahaz.”

Isaiah healed King Hezekiah by taking a lump of figs and putting it on the boil. However, King Hezekiah wanted a sign that Yahweh had healed him. Then he would know that he was to the go to the house of Yahweh on the 3rd day. The sign would be the sundial shadow that King Ahaz had installed. Since moving forward would not be difficult, if the shadow moved backward that would be a miracle. Isaiah cried to Yahweh and the sundial moved back 10 intervals to show the curing of King Hezekiah. This indicated that the sun had moved backwards which would have been miraculous.