“They all ate.
They were filled.
What was leftover
Was gathered up.
Of broken pieces.”
καὶ ἔφαγον καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν πάντες, καὶ ἤρθη τὸ περισσεῦσαν αὐτοῖς κλασμάτων κόφινοι δώδεκα.
Luke said that they all ate (καὶ ἔφαγον) until they were filled or satisfied (καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν πάντες). What was leftover was gathered up (καὶ ἤρθη τὸ περισσεῦσαν), so that there were 12 baskets of broken pieces (αὐτοῖς κλασμάτων κόφινοι δώδεκα). This is the only miracle that is recorded in all four gospels, Matthew, chapter 14:20, Mark, chapter 6:42-44, and John, chapter 6:12, plus here, but there were slight differences. All the synoptic gospels have the same wording, so that Mark may be the source. All agree that there were 12 baskets of food left over, symbolic of the 12 tribes of Israel and the 12 apostles. They also agree that it was about 5,000 men. Obviously, there was no exact count taken. Only Matthew added the remark about women and the children. Mark said that they took up 12 full hand baskets of the broken pieces of bread, and the pieces of fish. Those who ate the loaves and fish were about 5,000 men. Certainly, it was a miraculous feeding. Matthew said that everyone ate some food. They were all satisfied or filled, but there was no mention of anything to drink. They took up the leftover broken pieces or fragments of food, so that it filled 12 full baskets, a very symbolic number. Those who ate were about 5,000 men, not counting the women and the children, who would have been on the edges of this large crowd of men. Without a doubt, this was a very big crowd to feed. What is the largest crowd that you ever ate with?
Did not agree.
Some stood up.
πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἴσαι αἱ μαρτυρίαι οὐκ ἦσαν.
καί τινες ἀναστάντες ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ λέγοντες
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 14:60. However, this emphasis on witnesses and testimony was not in Luke, chapter 22, and John, chapter 18. Mark said that many people gave false testimony against Jesus (πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ). Their testimonies did not agree (καὶ ἴσαι αἱ μαρτυρίαι οὐκ ἦσαν). Some people stood up (καί τινες ἀναστάντες) and gave these false testimonies against Jesus (ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ λέγοντες). There is almost a redundancy in these remarks. According to Jewish law in Deuteronomy, chapters 17:6 and 19:15, it took 2 witnesses to convict anyone. This gathering sounds more like a trial than an informal meeting. Not only were they seeking pseudo or false witnesses, the whole council meeting may have been illegal, since they were not allowed to meet during the festivals, including Passover. This council included the elders or presbyters and the Scribes of Jerusalem, along with the priests and the high priests. However, the dreaded Pharisees and Sadducees were not part of this council meeting.
“Then Jesus took
After giving thanks,
He gave it
All of them
Drank from it.”
καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες
This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:27, and similar in Luke, chapter 22:17, but there it preceded the blessing of the bread. Paul used almost the same wording in I Corinthians, chapter 11:25. John, chapter 6:53-58, had Jesus preaching about eating and drinking the body and blood of the Son of Man. Matthew and Mark agree that Jesus took a drinking cup (καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον), assuming this cup was filled with wine. After giving thanks or eucharistizing it (εὐχαριστήσας), Jesus gave them this drinking cup (ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς). Instead of telling them to drink from this cup, as in Matthew, Mark simply said that all of them drank from it (καὶ ἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες). This new developing Christian Eucharistic worship service used the Greek word “εὐχαριστήσας (giving thanks)” as it became the name of the Last Supper remembrance event.
“They took up
Full of broken pieces
And of the fish.
Those who had eaten
Numbered five thousand men.”
καὶ ἦραν κλάσματα δώδεκα κοφίνων πληρώματα καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἰχθύων.
καὶ ἦσαν οἱ φαγόντες τοὺς ἄρτους πεντακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες.
This is the only miracle that is recorded in all four gospels, Matthew, chapter 14:20-21, Luke, chapter 9:17, and John, chapter 6:13, plus here, but there are slight differences. All agree that there were 12 baskets of food left over, symbolic of the 12 tribes of Israel and the 12 apostles. They also agree that it was about 5,000 men. Obviously, there was no exact count taken. Only Matthew added the remark about women and the children. Mark said that they took up 12 full hand baskets of the broken pieces of bread (καὶ ἦραν κλάσματα δώδεκα κοφίνων πληρώματα), and the pieces of fish (καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἰχθύων). Those who ate the loaves (καὶ ἦσαν οἱ φαγόντες τοὺς ἄρτους) were about 5,000 men (πεντακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες). Without a doubt, this was a very large crowd to feed.
In the wilderness
Tempted by Satan.
With the wild beasts.
Ministered to him.”
καὶ ἦν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ τεσσεράκοντα ἡμέρας πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ Σατανᾶ, καὶ ἦν μετὰ τῶν θηρίων, καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι διηκόνουν αὐτῷ.
Mark has an abbreviated description of the temptations of Jesus compared to Matthew, chapter 4:2-11, and Luke, chapter 4:2-13. Jesus was in the wilderness 40 days (καὶ ἦν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ τεσσεράκοντα ἡμέρας). All 3 synoptics agree on the 40 days, since there was a symbolism to this number with the 40 years that the Israelites were in the wilderness during the Exodus. All agree that Jesus was tempted by Satan or the devil (πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ Σατανᾶ). Satan was the adversary or the accuser after the Persian influence on the Israelites after the exile. The older devil concept was considered a fallen angel without all the powers of God, but nevertheless very strong. Sometimes the devil was referred to as the personification of evil. Why was Jesus tempted? God, the Father, Yahweh, often tested the righteous ones and the prophets in the Hebrew Bible. Luke and Matthew are very similar with their detailed account of these 3 temptations. Mark does not mention Jesus fasting or any of the 3 specific detailed temptations that are in Luke and Matthew. Jesus was with the wild beasts (καὶ ἦν μετὰ τῶν θηρίων), but this remark was not found in the longer detailed descriptions of Matthew and Luke, only here. Mark makes it seem like the temptation was physical or like the fear of wild animals. Then the angels ministered to him (καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι διηκόνουν αὐτῷ). This is somewhat similar to Matthew, chapter 4:11, but there were no angels ministering to Jesus in Luke, chapter 4:13. Here, a number of angels came, as in 1 Kings, chapter 19:4-8, where an angel came to help Elijah when he was in the desert, as the shadow of Elijah appeared in many of these gospel stories. These angels came to wait on and care for Jesus.
“When they had sung
They went out
To the Mount of Olives.”
Καὶ ὑμνήσαντες ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν.
This is exactly word for word in Mark, chapter 14:26, and similar in Luke, chapter 22:39. Both Matthew and Mark agree that after they had sung the praise hymns (Καὶ ὑμνήσαντες), they went out to the hill or the Mount of Olives (ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν). The hymns that they would have sung would be the Hallel Psalms 115-118, that were usually associated with the Passover service. The Mount of Olives was about 2 miles east of the old city of Jerusalem, where many people had been buried for thousands of years. Thus, when Jesus and his 12 disciples had finished with their Passover hymn singing of the Hallel psalms, they went outside the city about 2 miles to this graveyard where there was a hill with a lot of olive trees on it.
“Then he took a cup.
After giving thanks,
He gave it
‘Drink from it!
All of you!
This is my blood
Of the covenant,
Which is poured out
For the forgiveness of sins.”
καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων Πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες·
τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυννόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν.
This is almost word for word in Mark, chapter 14:23-24, and similar in Luke, chapter 22:17, but preceding the blessing of the bread. John, chapter 13:53-58, has Jesus preaching about eating and drinking the body and blood of the Son of Man. Matthew and Mark agree that Jesus took a drinking cup (καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον), assuming this cup was filled with wine. After giving thanks (καὶ εὐχαριστήσας), Jesus gave them this drinking cup (ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς). He told all of them to drink from this cup (λέγων Πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες). He said that this was his blood of the covenant (τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης), that was to be poured out for many people (τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυννόμενον) in order to forgive sins (εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν). The blessing of the wine had a more elaborate narrative than the bread. However, both would become part of the new developing Christian Eucharistic worship service. Thus, the Greek word “εὐχαριστήσας (giving thanks)” became the name of the Last Supper Eucharist remembrance event.