Luke is the only synoptic writer with this parable about the widow and the bad judge. Luke indicated that Jesus said there was a widow in that city (χήρα δὲ ἦν ἐν τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ). She kept coming to this bad judge (καὶ ἤρχετο πρὸς αὐτὸν). She said (λέγουσα) that she wanted justice or restitution (Ἐκδίκησόν με) against her opponent or adversary (ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀντιδίκου μου). Widows were the powerless and vulnerable in Jewish society, since they had lost the support of their husbands. People would always be reminded to help the poor and the widows, as they were considered the same class of people, since generally, older women without husbands were poor. This particular widow had a case against someone, so that she kept coming back to his bad judge to achieve justice or vengeance on her part. Have you ever sued anyone?
This incident about the man seeking eternal can be found in Mark, chapter 10:17, and Luke, chapter 18:18, but slightly different. This person, not a ruler as in Luke, came to Jesus (Καὶ ἰδοὺ εἷς προσελθὼν αὐτῷ). He called Jesus a teacher (εἶπεν Διδάσκαλε). He wanted to know what one good deed he could do (τί ἀγαθὸν ποιήσω) to achieve eternal life (ἵνα σχῶ ζωὴν αἰώνιον). This person wanted to know about his own personal eternal salvation, while the normal Jewish attitude would have been to talk about how they could all be saved.
This refrain is one of the few sections in this psalm that is unique. This section is a call to achieve victory. God was to be exalted above the heavens. His glory should be all over the earth. David wanted victory from the right hand of God. He wanted an answer. He wanted to be rescued because God loved him.