The priests in the Temple (Mt 12:5-12:5)

“Have you not read

In the law

That on the Sabbath

The priests in the temple

Break the Sabbath.

Yet they are guiltless?”

 

ἢ οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῷ νόμῳ ὅτι τοῖς σάββασιν οἱ ἱερεῖς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ τὸ σάββατον βεβηλοῦσιν καὶ ἀναίτιοί εἰσιν;

 

This saying is unique to Matthew.  He has Jesus cite an example in Numbers, chapter 28:9-10, where there was a special sacrifice only on the Sabbath.  This sacrifice had two male one-year old lambs without blemish, and two-tenths of an ephah of choice flour for a grain offering, mixed with oil, and its drink offering.  This was the burnt offering every Sabbath.  This was in addition to the regular burnt offerings and the drink offerings.  However, this sacrifice was not mentioned in any other place in the Torah.  Jesus asked them if they had read the law (ἢ οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῷ νόμῳ) where on the Sabbath (ὅτι τοῖς σάββασιν), the priests in the temple (οἱ ἱερεῖς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ) broke or profaned the Sabbath with these sacrifices (τὸ σάββατον βεβηλοῦσιν), yet they were guiltless (καὶ ἀναίτιοί εἰσιν).

King Nebuchadnezzar worships Daniel (Dan 2:46-2:46)

“Then King Nebuchadnezzar

Fell on his face.

He worshipped Daniel.

He commanded

That a grain offering

With incense

Be offered to him.”

After this dream interpretation by Daniel, King Nebuchadnezzar fell on his face, as he worshipped Daniel. He even commanded that a grain offering with incense be offered to him, since Daniel had become like a god.

The prince provides the offerings (Ezek 46:4-46:5)

“The burnt offering

That the prince

Offers to Yahweh,

On the Sabbath day

Shall be

Six lambs

Without blemish,

With a ram

Without blemish.

The grain offering

With the ram

Shall be an ephah.

The grain offering

With the lambs

Shall be as much

As he wishes to give.

There will be

A hin of oil

For each ephah.”

The Sabbath burnt offerings of the prince were clearly laid out by Yahweh, via Ezekiel. Each Sabbath, six unblemished lambs and one ram were to be offered with an ephah of a grain offering for the ram. However, the prince could decide about how much grain for the lambs. Nevertheless, for each ephah of grain (about 2/3rds of bushel), there had to be a hin or a gallon of oil.

The seven-day offerings (Ezek 45:23-45:24)

“During the seven days

Of the festival,

The prince shall provide,

As a burnt offering

To Yahweh,

Seven young bulls,

As well as seven rams

Without blemish.

This will be done

On each of the seven days.

He shall also provide

A male goat daily

For a sin offering.

He shall provide

As a grain offering

An ephah for each bull,

An ephah for each ram,

With a hin of oil

For each ephah.”

Yahweh, via Ezekiel, also mentioned that the prince had to provide a series of animals and grains for the 7 day Passover celebration. This was on top of eating the unleavened bread for 7 days. There was a burnt offering of a bull and an unblemished ram each day of the weeklong festival. Besides the bull and the ram, the prince had to provide a goat each day for a sin offering. He also had to provide a grain offering for each bull and ram. This grain offering was to be an ephah or 2/3rds of a bushel with a hin or a gallon of oil for each ephah of grain.