John said, “I heard (καὶ ἤκουσα) what seemed to be a voice (ὡς φωνὴν) in the midst (ἐν μέσῳ) of the four living creatures (τῶν τεσσάρων ζῴων) saying (λέγουσαν), ‘A quart (Χοῖνιξ) of wheat (σίτου) for a denarius (δηναρίου). Three quarts (καὶ τρεῖς χοίνικες) of barley (κριθῶν) for a denarius (δηναρίου). But do not damage (μὴ ἀδικήσῃς) the olive tree (καὶ τὸ ἔλαιον) and the wine (καὶ τὸν οἶνον)!’” This is the only use of this Greek word that appears only in Revelation and not in any other canonical biblical NT writing, the word Χοῖνιξ, that means a choenix, a Greek dry measure of less than a quart, equivalent to 1.92 pints, and the word κριθῶν, that means barley. John heard the voice coming from the four living creatures, not explicitly from any one individual. There seems to be an implication that a famine is coming. The denarius was a full day’s pay. Thus, a ration of wheat and barley was available. Barley was less expensive and only mentioned here in Revelation. However, the olive trees and vineyard did not seem to be damaged like the earlier crops of wheat and barley. Have you ever lacked for food?
There is something similar in Mark, chapter 12:15-17, and in Luke, chapter 20:24-25. Jesus wanted to see the coin that was used for paying the poll tax (ἐπιδείξατέ μοι τὸ νόμισμα τοῦ κήνσου). They brought or presented him with a small silver Roman coin, a denarius (οἱ δὲ προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δηνάριον). He then asked them (καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς) whose image and whose inscription title (Τίνος ἡ εἰκὼν αὕτη καὶ ἡ ἐπιγραφή) were on this coin? They answered (λέγουσιν) that the image and inscription belonged to Caesar (Καίσαρος). Then Jesus responded to them (τότε λέγει αὐτοῖς) by telling them to give to the Roman emperor Caesar the things that belonged to the emperor (Ἀπόδοτε οὖν τὰ Καίσαρος Καίσαρι). At the same time, they should give to God the things that belong to God (καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ). With this ambiguous answer, Jesus avoided offending Jewish nationalists and the Roman Empire party and its officials. Thus, the Roman and Jewish parties were both satisfied and unsatisfied at the same time. If everything belonged to God, do not pay this tax. If everything belonged to the Roman empire, pay the tax. The choice was theirs. He was not going to tell them what to do. This statement of Jesus has become the basic Christian understanding of the relationships of church and state.
This parable is unique to Matthew, as Jesus concluded this parable. The landowner replied to one of them (ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς ἑνὶ αὐτῶν) with a sarcastic greeting of companion or friend (εἶπεν Ἑταῖρε). He had done nothing wrong to them (οὐκ ἀδικῶ σε). They had agreed to the one denarius pay for a day’s work (οὐχὶ δηναρίου συνεφώνησάς μοι). They should just take their money and go (ἆρον τὸ σὸν καὶ ὕπαγε). If the landowner was generous that was not the problem of this day laborer. He could give to the last hired what he gave to the first hired (θέλω δὲ τούτῳ τῷ ἐσχάτῳ δοῦναι ὡς καὶ σοί). Was he not allowed (οὐκ ἔξεστίν μοι) to do whatever he wanted to do with his own belongings (ὃ θέλω ποιῆσαι ἐν τοῖς ἐμοῖς). Were they envious with an evil eye (ἢ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρός ἐστιν) because he was generous (ὅτι ἐγὼ ἀγαθός εἰμι)? In fact, they did not mind generosity. They just wanted to know why none of that generosity came their way. That is the problem with generosity. The person who worked hard for a fair payment sometimes resents the generosity towards those who did not do as much work. Why was the hard worker for the whole day not compensated more generously than the one-hour worker? There are always two sides to every story.
This parable is unique to Matthew, as Jesus continued his parable story. When the first group of hired laborers came (καὶ ἐλθόντες οἱ πρῶτοι) to get their pay as the last ones, they thought that they would receive more than the one denarius that all the later hired laborers had received (ἐνόμισαν ὅτι πλεῖον λήμψονται). However, each of them received one denarius (καὶ ἔλαβον τὸ ἀνὰ δηνάριον καὶ αὐτοί), what they had agreed to in the early morning. When they got this pay (λαβόντες δὲ), they grumbled against the landowner (ἐγόγγυζον κατὰ τοῦ οἰκοδεσπότου). They complained that the last hired laborers had worked only 1 hour (λέγοντες Οὗτοι οἱ ἔσχατοι μίαν ὥραν ἐποίησαν). This land owner had made them equal to those who had worked 12 hours (καὶ ἴσους αὐτοὺς ἡμῖν). They had been picking grapes all day long in the scorching heat (ἐποίησας τοῖς βαστάσασι τὸ βάρος τῆς ἡμέρας καὶ τὸν καύσωνα). This seemed grossly unfair. If the last hired got one denarius (15 cents) for 1 hour of work, why were they not paid 12 denarii ($1.80) for 12 hours of work. They seemed to have a good argument. However, so did those who started at 9 AM, noon, and 3 PM. They all got one denarius but did not grumble. Remember it is a story or parable.