Heavenly and earthly gods and lords (1 Cor. 8:5)

“Although there may be

So-called gods

In heaven

Or on earth,

As indeed there are many


And many ‘lords’.”

καὶ γὰρ εἴπερ εἰσὶν λεγόμενοι θεοὶ εἴτε ἐν οὐρανῷ εἴτε ἐπὶ γῆς, ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοὶ καὶ κύριοι πολλοί,

Paul said that although there may be so-called gods (καὶ γὰρ εἴπερ εἰσὶν λεγόμενοι θεοὶ) in heaven (εἴτε ἐν οὐρανῷ) or on earth (εἴτε ἐπὶ γῆς), as indeed there are many “gods” (ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοὶ) and many “lords” (καὶ κύριοι πολλοί).  Paul did not deny the real existence of these so-called pagan god images both in heaven and on earth.  He admitted that there many of these gods and lords being worshipped, as he referred to the many gods on Mount Olympus in Greece and the various humans, especially Roman leaders, who were declared divine gods or lords among the various gentile or non-Jewish people.  Do you worship humans or man-made images as if they were God?

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