The cock crowed (Jn 18:27-18:27)

“At that moment,

The cock crowed.”

καὶ εὐθέως ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν.

John indicated that at that moment (καὶ εὐθέως), the cock crowed (ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν).  Thus, this happened just as Jesus had predicted without any further explanation.  The synoptics were not as succinct.  Matthew, chapter 26:74-75, recounted that at that moment when the rooster cock crowed (καὶ εὐθὺς ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν), Peter remembered what Jesus had said (καὶ ἐμνήσθη ὁ Πέτρος τοῦ ῥήματος Ἰησοῦ εἰρηκότος).  Before the cock or the rooster crowed (ὅτι Πρὶν ἀλέκτορα φωνῆσαι), he would deny, disown, or repudiate Jesus three times (τρὶς ἀπαρνήσῃ με).  Thus, Peter went out and wept or lamented bitterly (καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἔξω ἔκλαυσεν πικρῶς).  Mark, chapter 14:72, is almost word for word like Matthew, chapter 26:74-75, except that Mark has the cock crowing twice instead of once.  Mark recounted that at that moment when the rooster cock crowed for a second time (καὶ εὐθὺς ἐκ δευτέρου ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν), Peter remembered what Jesus had said to him (καὶ ἀνεμνήσθη ὁ Πέτρος τὸ ῥῆμα ὡς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς).  Before the cock or the rooster crowed twice (ὅτι Πρὶν ἀλέκτορα δὶς φωνῆσαι), he would deny, disown, or repudiate Jesus three times (τρὶς με ἀπαρνήσῃ).  Thus, Peter broke down and wept or lamented bitterly (καὶ ἐπιβαλὼν ἔκλαιεν).  In Luke, chapter 22:60-62, not only does the cock crow, but Peter sees Jesus look at him to remind him of his failures.  Then Peter went away crying.  At that moment (καὶ παραχρῆμα), while he was still speaking (ἔτι λαλοῦντος αὐτοῦ), the cock or rooster crowed (ἐφώνησεν ἀλέκτωρ).  Luke uniquely said that the Lord Jesus turned (καὶ στραφεὶς ὁ Κύριος) and looked at Peter (ἐνέβλεψεν τῷ Πέτρῳ).  Peter then remembered (καὶ ὑπεμνήσθη ὁ Πέτρος) the words of the Lord (τοῦ λόγου τοῦ Κυρίου).  He had said to him (ὡς εἶπεν αὐτῷ) that before the cock crows today (ὅτι Πρὶν ἀλέκτορα φωνῆσαι σήμερον), that he would deny him three times (ἀπαρνήσῃ με τρίς).  Only Luke had Jesus look at Peter.  John had nothing more to add after the denial and the rooster crow, since he did not mention Peter weeping.  Only Luke had Jesus, now called the Lord, look at Peter.  Luke said that Peter went out and wept bitterly (καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἔξω ἔκλαυσεν πικρῶς) as in Mark, chapter 14:72, and Matthew, chapter 26:75.  The early followers of Jesus, the primitive Christian community, were in shambles.  Both Peter and Judas, two of the 12 leaders, had betrayed Jesus, while Jesus himself was about to be led off to death.  Have you ever been in a state of despair over someone you looked up to?

Peter the Galilean denied Jesus the third time (Jn 18:27-18:27)

“Again Peter

Denied it.”

πάλιν οὖν ἠρνήσατο Πέτρος

John indicated that again (πάλιν) Peter (Πέτρος) denied (οὖν ἠρνήσατο) that he was a disciple of Jesus.  Thus, this third public denial of Jesus by Peter can be found in all four canonical gospels.  Matthew, chapter 26:73-74, said that after a little while (μετὰ μικρὸν), some of the bystanders said to Peter (οἱ ἑστῶτες εἶπον τῷ Πέτρῳ) that he certainly was one of the followers of Jesus (Ἀληθῶς καὶ σὺ ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶ), because of his northern Galilee accent in his speech that betrayed him (καὶ γὰρ ἡ λαλιά σου δῆλόν σε ποιεῖ).  Then Peter began to curse (τότε ἤρξατο καταθεματίζειν).  He swore an oath that he did not know this man (καὶ ὀμνύειν ὅτι Οὐκ οἶδα τὸν ἄνθρωπον).  Peter was accused of being a man from Galilee, a follower of Jesus of Nazareth.  You can never escape your accent.  Mark, chapter 14:70-71, said that after a little while (καὶ μετὰ μικρὸν), some bystanders again said to Peter (ἔλεγον τῷ Πέτρῳ) that he certainly was one of those followers of Jesus (Ἀληθῶς ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶ), because he was from Galilee (καὶ γὰρ Γαλιλαῖος εἶ), a Galilean.  Peter began to curse (ὁ δὲ ἤρξατο ἀναθεματίζειν).  He swore an oath that he did not know this man (καὶ ὀμνύειν ὅτι Οὐκ οἶδα τὸν ἄνθρωπον).  He did not know what they were talking about (τοῦτον ὃν λέγετε).  Luke, chapter 22:59-60, said that about an hour later (καὶ διαστάσης ὡσεὶ ὥρας μιᾶς), still a certain other person kept insisting emphatically (ἄλλος τις διϊσχυρίζετο λέγων) that Peter was truly or certainly also with Jesus (Ἐπ’ ἀληθείας καὶ οὗτος μετ’ αὐτοῦ ἦν), since he was a Galilean (καὶ γὰρ Γαλιλαῖός ἐστιν).  Thus, Peter was confronted a thirdtime.  Peter said (εἶπεν δὲ ὁ Πέτρος) that he did not know what they were talking about (Ἄνθρωπε, οὐκ οἶδα ὃ λέγεις).  Thus, we have the third public denial of Jesus by Peter that can be found in all four canonical gospels.  This apostolic leader had failed his first major test just as Jesus had predicted, despite his bombastic earlier outbursts that it would never happen.  Luke did not have the curse or the oath, while John said that Peter simply denied Jesus, without mentioning anything about Galilee.  Have you ever over promised something that you would never do?

A relative of the man with the cut off ear (Jn 18:26-18:26)

“One of the servants

Of the high priest,

A relative

Of the man

Whose ear

Peter had cut off,


‘Did I not see you

In the garden

With him?’”

λέγει εἷς ἐκ τῶν δούλων τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, συγγενὴς ὢν οὗ ἀπέκοψεν Πέτρος τὸ ὠτίον Οὐκ ἐγώ σε εἶδον ἐν τῷ κήπῳ μετ’ αὐτοῦ;

John uniquely indicated that one of the servants (εἷς ἐκ τῶν δούλων) of the high priest (τοῦ ἀρχιερέως), a relative (συγγενὴς ὢν) of the man whose ear Peter had cut off (οὗ ἀπέκοψεν Πέτρος τὸ ὠτίον), asked (λέγει) Peter.  “Did I not see you (Οὐκ ἐγώ σε εἶδον) in the garden with him (ἐν τῷ κήπῳ μετ’ αὐτοῦ)?”  This only appears in John, since he was the only one who mentioned that Peter cut the ear off of the high priest’s servant called Malthus.  Thus, only John mentioned him in this denial story about Peter.  He obviously would have recognized Peter if he was a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off.  Have you ever injured another person?

Peter denied Jesus again (Jn 18:25-18:25)

“Now Simon Peter

Was standing.

He was warming himself.

They asked him.

‘Are you not also

One of his disciples?’

He denied it.

He said.

‘I am not.’”

Ἦν δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος ἑστὼς καὶ θερμαινόμενος. εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ Μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ εἶ; ἠρνήσατο ἐκεῖνος καὶ εἶπεν Οὐκ εἰμί.

John now continued the story about Simon Peter, who as standing outside (Ἦν δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος ἑστὼς), warming himself (καὶ θερμαινόμενος).  The people around him asked him (εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ) if he was not also one of the disciples of Jesus (Μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ εἶ)?  Peter denied it (ἠρνήσατο ἐκεῖνος).  He said (καὶ εἶπεν) that that he was not one of them (Οὐκ εἰμί).  All four gospels had this second denial of Peter.  Matthew, chapter 26:71-72, said that Peter went out to the porch area of the courtyard (ἐξελθόντα δὲ εἰς τὸν πυλῶνα).  Another young servant girl saw him (εἶδεν αὐτὸν ἄλλη).  She then said to the bystanders there (καὶ λέγει τοῖς ἐκεῖ) that this man was with Jesus of Nazareth (Οὗτος ἦν μετὰ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ναζωραίου).  Again, Peter denied it with an oath (καὶ πάλιν ἠρνήσατο μετὰ ὅρκου).  He said that he did not know this man (ὅτι Οὐκ οἶδα τὸν ἄνθρωπον).  Jesus had warned them about swearing oaths in Matthew, chapter 5:33-37.  Mark, chapter 14:69-70, said that this same young servant girl, who had accused Peter the first time, saw Peter again (καὶ ἡ παιδίσκη ἰδοῦσα αὐτὸν).  She then began to say to the bystanders there (ἤρξατο πάλιν λέγειν τοῖς παρεστῶσιν) that this man was one of them with Jesus (Οὗτος ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐστιν).  Peter denied (ὁ δὲ πάλιν ἠρνεῖτο) that he was one of the followers of Jesus.  Do not hang around if someone is harassing you.  Luke, chapter 22:58, said that a little later (καὶ μετὰ βραχὺ), someone else saw him (ἕτερος ἰδὼν αὐτὸν).  This man said to Peter that he was one of them (ἔφη Καὶ σὺ ἐξ αὐτῶν εἶ).  However, Peter emphatically said that he was not one of the followers of Jesus (ὁ δὲ Πέτρος ἔφη Ἄνθρωπε, οὐκ εἰμί).  John had a group of people here, rather than one individual, address Peter, who then had this simple denial, as in Luke.  Peter, the great defender of Jesus, again denied him in public with a solemn oath for a second time, something he said that he would never do.  Would you deny Jesus twice?

Jesus was sent to Caiaphas (Jn 18:24-18:24)

“Then Annas

Sent Jesus bound

To Caiaphas

The high priest.”

ἀπέστειλεν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ Ἄννας δεδεμένον πρὸς Καϊάφαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα.

John uniquely indicated that Annas (ὁ Ἄννας) sent Jesus (ἀπέστειλεν οὖν αὐτὸν) bound or tied up (δεδεμένον) to Caiaphas (πρὸς Καϊάφαν) the current high priest (τὸν ἀρχιερέα).  This is the only gospel story that had Jesus both at the home of Annas and Caiaphas.  The others spoke of the house of the high priest or Caiaphas.  According to John, Jesus was tied up and sent to the high priest Caiaphas.  Have you ever been tied up?

Have I misspoken? (Jn 18:23-18:23)

“Jesus answered him.

‘If I have spoken wrongly,

Bear witness

To the wrong!

But if I have spoken rightly,

Why do you strike me?’”

ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς Εἰ κακῶς ἐλάλησα, μαρτύρησον περὶ τοῦ κακοῦ· εἰ δὲ καλῶς, τί με δέρεις;

John uniquely indicated that Jesus (Ἰησοῦς) answered this guard (ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ) that if he had spoken wrongly or in an evil way (Εἰ κακῶς ἐλάλησα), let him bear witness (μαρτύρησον) to his wrong comments (περὶ τοῦ κακοῦ).  But if he has spoken correctly or in a right way (εἰ δὲ καλῶς), why did he strike him (τί με δέρεις).  This was not in any of the other synoptic gospels.  Jesus responded that if he was wrong, bring a witness to prove it.  Otherwise, the question still stands.  Why did he strike him?  How would you respond if someone hit you?

Someone struck Jesus (Jn 18:22-18:22)

“When he had said this,

One of the Temple officers,

Standing nearby,

Struck Jesus

With an open hand.

He said.

‘Is that how

You answer

The high priest?’”

ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰπόντος εἷς παρεστηκὼς τῶν ὑπηρετῶν ἔδωκεν ῥάπισμα τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰπών Οὕτως ἀποκρίνῃ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ;

John uniquely indicated that when Jesus had said these things to the high priest (ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰπόντος), one of the Temple officers standing nearby (εἷς παρεστηκὼς τῶν ὑπηρετῶν) gave (ἔδωκεν) an open-handed blow or slap (ῥάπισμα) to Jesus (τῷ Ἰησοῦ).  This officer said to Jesus (εἰπών) that this was not the way (Οὕτως) to answer (ἀποκρίνῃ) the high priest (τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ).  Mark, chapter 14:65, said that some in this council were not reluctant to abuse him with spitting, punching, slapping, and taunting Jesus.  Thus, they began to spit at him (Καὶ ἤρξαντό τινες ἐμπτύειν αὐτῷ).  They blindfolded him or covered up his face (καὶ περικαλύπτειν αὐτοῦ τὸ πρόσωπον).  Then they struck him (καὶ κολαφίζειν αὐτὸν).  Matthew, chapter 26:67, that they were not reluctant to abuse Jesus with spitting, punching, slapping, and taunting.  Thus, they spat at him in his face (Τότε ἐνέπτυσαν εἰς τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ).  They struck him with a fist (καὶ ἐκολάφισαν αὐτόν), while others slapped him with an open hand (οἱ δὲ ἐράπισαν).  However, there was nothing like this in Luke, while here in John, it was only one guard associated with the high priest, not a number of people.  Have you ever mistreated people?

Ask them! (Jn 18:21-18:21)

“Why do you ask me?

Ask those

Who have heard

What I said

To them!

They know

What I said.”

τί με ἐρωτᾷς; ἐρώτησον τοὺς ἀκηκοότας τί ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς· ἴδε οὗτοι οἴδασιν ἃ εἶπον ἐγώ.

John uniquely indicated that Jesus said why was the high priest asking him (τί με ἐρωτᾷς) when he could ask those (ἐρώτησον τοὺς) who have heard (ἀκηκοότας) what he had said to them (τί ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς).  They knew (ἴδε οὗτοι οἴδασιν) what he said (ἴδε οὗτοι οἴδασιν).  Jesus wanted to know why he was being questioned, since he had spoken openly.  The high priest could have asked any of the many people who had heard him speak in the various synagogues or in the unique Jerusalem Temple.  This response of Jesus was not found in the other synoptic gospels.  Are you careful about what you say?

Jesus spoke openly (Jn 18:20-18:20)

“Jesus answered him.

‘I have spoken openly

To the world.

I have always taught

In the synagogues

And in the Temple,

Where all Jews

Come together.

I have said nothing

In secret.’”

ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς Ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ λελάληκα τῷ κόσμῳ· ἐγὼ πάντοτε ἐδίδαξα ἐν συναγωγῇ καὶ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, ὅπου πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι συνέρχονται, καὶ ἐν κρυπτῷ ἐλάλησα οὐδέν.

John uniquely indicated that Jesus (Ἰησοῦς) answered the high priest (ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ) that he had spoken openly (Ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ λελάληκα) to the world (τῷ κόσμῳ).  He had always taught (ἐγὼ πάντοτε ἐδίδαξα) in the local synagogues (ἐν συναγωγῇ) and in the Jerusalem Temple (καὶ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ), where all Jews come together (ὅπου πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι συνέρχονται).  He had said nothing (ἐλάλησα οὐδέν) in secret (καὶ ἐν κρυπτῷ).  Jesus made a point that he was not hiding anything.  He had openly spoke in the many local Jewish gathering places, the synagogues, and in the unique Jerusalem Temple itself.  He had nothing to hide.  Do you hide your opinions?

The high priest questioned Jesus (Jn 18:19-18:19)

“Then the high priest

Questioned Jesus

About his disciples

And his teaching.”

Ὁ οὖν ἀρχιερεὺς ἠρώτησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν περὶ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ περὶ τῆς διδαχῆς αὐτοῦ.

John turned away from Peter and talked about the high priest.  He uniquely indicated that the high priest (Ὁ οὖν ἀρχιερεὺς) questioned (ἠρώτησεν) Jesus (τὸν Ἰησοῦν) about his disciples (περὶ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ) and his teaching (καὶ περὶ τῆς διδαχῆς αὐτοῦ).  There is something similar in Matthew, chapter 26:59-66, Mark, chapter 14:53-64, and Luke chapter 22:66-71, about the high priest questioning Jesus, but not exactly the same.  Here, it does not seem to be a trial.  Have you ever been to a trial?