The new covenant (Lk 22:20-22:20)

“Jesus

Did the same

With the cup

After supper.

He said.

‘This cup,

That is poured out

For you,

Is the new covenant

In my blood.’”

καὶ τὸ ποτήριον ὡσαύτως μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου, τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυννόμενον.

Luke said that Jesus did the same with the cup (καὶ τὸ ποτήριον ὡσαύτως) after supper (μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι).  He said (λέγων) that this cup (Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον) was poured out for them (τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυννόμενον), as the new covenant (ἡ) in his blood (ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου).  Luke was the only synoptic to call this a new covenant (καινὴ διαθήκη) rather than just a covenant.  This is almost word for word in Matthew, chapter 26:27-28, and Mark, chapter 14:23-24, but Matthew added “the forgiveness of sins” at the end.  Luke was the only one to have a blessing cup before the bread and one after the bread and the supper.  Paul spoke also about a “new covenant” in I Corinthians, chapter 11:25.  In John, chapter 6:53-58, Jesus was preaching about eating and drinking the body and blood of the Son of Man, since there was no institution narrative.  Mark indicated that Jesus said to them (καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς) that this was his blood of the covenant (Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης), that was to be poured out for many people (τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον ὑπὲρ πολλῶ).  This blood poured out for many may be an allusion to Isaiah, chapter 53:12.  Notice that Mark has this statement about the blood of Jesus after they had already drunk the cup.  The same could be implied from Matthew who also said that after giving thanks (καὶ εὐχαριστήσας), Jesus gave them this drinking cup (ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς).  He told all of them to drink from this cup (λέγων Πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες).  He said that this was his blood of the covenant (τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης), that was to be poured out for many people (τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυννόμενον) in order to forgive sins (εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν).  This blessing of the wine had a more elaborate narrative than the bread.  However, both would become part of the new developing Christian Eucharistic worship service.  Thus, the Greek word “εὐχαριστήσας (giving thanks)” became the name of the Last Supper Eucharist remembrance event that was also known as the breaking of the bread.  Do you think that drinking the cup at a Eucharistic service is important?

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