ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως Ἄννα καὶ Καϊάφα,
Luke further set the historical background, as he indicated that there were two Jewish high priests (ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως) Annas (Ἄννα) and Caiaphas (καὶ Καϊάφα). The role of the Jewish high priest in Jerusalem was determined by the Roman authorities. Annas had been the high priest from 6-15 CE, before he was deposed. His sons took over, but eventually Caiaphas, his son in law, became the high priest from 18-36 CE, the correct timeframe for the activities of John and Jesus. Annas had some prestige, connection, or power over Caiaphas as the former high priest and father in law.